In its simplest form prolepsis is anticpation. In grammar it is the anticipation and answering of possible objections in rhetorical speech - the answering of an argument before one's opponent has put it forward.
It is also the anachronistic representation of something as existing before its proper or historical time;
The Free Dictonary by Farlex also adds -
a) the assignment of something, such as an event or name, to a time that precedes it, as in If you tell the cops, you're a dead man.
b) The use of a descriptive word in anticipation of the act or circumstances that would make it applicable, as dry in They drained the lake dry.
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